"Including Causally Regulated Ion Outflow in Global Geospace Models", Roger Varney, NCAR/HAO
The mechanisms by which heavy ions escape the ionosphere has been an open research area ever since the first detections of O+ in the magnetosphere in the 1970s. The recent advent of multi-fluid MHD models of the magnetosphere has demonstrated that these heavy ions can have profound effects on the coupled magnetosphere and ionosphere, and thus the ion outflow problem is more interesting than ever. This presentation begins with an overview of some of the proposed ion energization mechanisms in the generalized polar wind. Then we review the approaches which have been used thus far to include causally regulated ion outflow in global geospace models.
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