Title: "Global Modeling of Kinetic Waves in the Magnetosphere"
Abstract: We discuss two approaches to modeling waves globally in the magnetosphere. One approach is a finite element model that solves the full wave equations on a nonuniform mesh. We discuss how the model can be used to address wave propagation and instabilities and present examples of wave trapping in plasmaspheric plumes as well as generation of Alfven and ion-ion hybrid resonance. We also discuss how kinetic effects associated with Landau damping or cyclotron resonance can be included in the finite element model. A second approach is a time-dependent gyrokinetic model that has been developed to examine ULF waves driven by energetic particles in the inner magnetosphere. We discuss how the model has been used to examine instabiltiies driven by pressure gradients and temperature anisotropy. We also discuss how gyrosymmetry can be used to extend the gyrokinetic approach to higher frequencies with computational savings over full particle simulation techniques.
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